La route M1 : au sud, la route relie la ville à, Données démographiques : Institut pédagogique de Gumri Artaches. Prominent directors Ruben Simonov and Vardan Ajemian, actors Mher Mkrtchyan, Azat Sherents and Varduhi Varderesyan worked in theatre. Author and professor of geopolitics Pierre Verluise detailed in his 1995 book Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake, how a French doctor and director of a Leninakan hospital described that he had seen one hundred victims suffering from the syndrome each day during the first three days. Les travaux débutent à l'été 2007, obligeant à fermer l'aéroport durant plusieurs mois. Rezervujte si levné letenky do destinace Gyumri: Vyhledávejte a porovnávejte letenky na Tripadvisoru a najděte ty nejlepší lety pro svou cestu do destinace Gyumri. The Cathedral of the Holy Mother of God of Gyumri -also known as the Cathedral of the Seven Wounds of the Holy Mother of God- is the seat of the Diocese of Shirak of the Armenian Church. Both Leninakan and Kirovakan were roughly equidistant from the shock, yet Leninakan had greater damage. De 1858 à 1876, l'église Surp-Prkich (Saint-Sauveur) y est construite, sur le modèle de la cathédrale d'Ani. En 1991, à la chute de l'Union soviétique, la ville retrouve son nom historique de Gyumri[17]. Russian church of the Seversky 18th Dragoon Regiment, built in 1856. La gare centrale de Gyumri, située dans le sud-est de la ville, n'a que peu de passagers. [31], The presence of the small Russian Orthodox community along with the Russian military base personnel is marked with the Saint Alexandra the Martyr's Church (within the Russian base), the Church of Saint Michael the Archangel and the Church of Saint Arsenije.[32]. La ville subit un premier tremblement de terre en 1926 puis un deuxième en 1988, très dévastateur, qui la détruit à 60 %. Be prepared with the most accurate 10-day forecast for Leninakan, Armenia with highs, lows, chance of precipitation from The Weather Channel and Weather.com Gorbachev, in a TV interview several weeks after his expedited return from New York City, said that the concrete blocks had been built with more than enough sand but too little concrete, and suggested that the concrete had been stolen. Boris Karapetyan, director of earthquake studies at the Yerevan Polytechnical Institute, said of the difficult rebuilding process "Coordination is a major, major problem. [31], Seventy-eight people were killed while on a relief mission to Leninakan when a Soviet Ilyushin Il-76 crashed on approach to the airport there. Les preuves d'habitation dans l'antiquité sont nombreuses : en 1879 on a trouvé des objets en bronze datant du IIIe siècle av. Vlna střetů prošla celou planetu a byla zaregistrována specialisty v Austrálii, Asii, Evropě a Americe. Après la Révolution russe et l'effondrement du front du Caucase, les Ottomans entrent en Transcaucasie ; Alexandropol est bombardée et tombe le 15 mai 1918[10]. Arménie výrazně působí úlevou. The award-winning ensemble gathers many of Armenia's leading practitioners of traditional music, performing on duduk, sring, kamancha, oud, kanōn, santur, tar, saz, daf, dhol, and tombak.[41]. ", "Deaths and Injuries due to the Earthquake in Armenia – A Cohort Approach", "Lessons and questions emerge from Armenian quake", "Armenia's Metsamor NPP, Built Near Fault Line, Gets 10 Year Life Extension", "Armenia's Nuclear Risk; Antiquated Power Station to Be Reopened Despite Wide Concerns About Safety", "USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Facts and Statistics Graphs", "Earthquake Hazards Program: Largest and Deadliest Earthquakes by Year", "All the deadliest and strongest earthquakes since 1900, including coordinates", "6 Found Alive in Armenia 35 Days After Quake", "Fake News, Soviet-Style: The Armenian Earthquake Rescue That Was Too Good To Be True", "Russia 'Concerned' About Armenian Protests Of Foreign-Language Schools", "Soviet Relief Plane Crashes, Killing 78", "Yugoslav Pilots Blamed in Crash of Quake Relief Plane", "Story of Charles Aznavour's "For you Armenia, "Soviet Union: When the Earth Shook – A killer quake devastates Armenia, and the West responds with unprecedented aid", "Faucets, Not Hospitals : Armenia Aid Gets Back to the Basics", "In Armenia, Revival the American Way; U.S. Architects Plan an Earthquake-Resistant Spitak", "Out of Earthquake's Rubble Rises Soviet-U.S. Teamwork", "The Spitak (Armenia) earthquake of 7 December 1988: field observations, seismology and tectonics", "Geometry, segmentation and stress regime of the Spitak (Armenia) earthquake from the analysis of the aftershock sequence", "Earthquake of 7 December 1988, Spitak, Armenia report of the NZNSEE team visit of 1989", Earthquake Damage, the Armenian SSR, December 7, 1988, On this day – 1988: Death toll rises in Armenian earthquake, Rescue efforts underway after earthquake strikes the Soviet republic of Armenia. (Foto Istituto per la Cooperazione Universitaria). Vlaky běží pouze dvakrát denně: ráno a večer. [30] There are around 16,000 Armenian Catholics in the Shirak Province. L'Arménie signe donc le traité d'Alexandropol pour arrêter l'avancée des Turcs, mettant ainsi un terme à la guerre arméno-turque[14]. For many years following World War II the Soviets practiced a methodical top-down approach to urban planning and building, constructing a large number of uniformly built row style apartment units, and the Soviets plan for rebuilding Spitak did not diverge from that approach. Možná není těžké odhadnout, že dostal své jméno na počest Vladimira Ilyicha. At the Yerevan airport, western pilots reported a breakdown in air traffic control communications, with flight controllers not delivering the necessary flight navigation instructions, allowing for a critical lack of separation as foreign planes made their way into the area. [57] The city is also home to the "Factory of Bending Machinses" opened in 1912, the "Arshaluys" hosiery manufacturing enterprise established in 1926, the "Karhat" machine tools plant opened in 1959, the "Chap Chemical LLC" since 1999, the "Armtex Group" clothing factory since 2000, and the "Lentex" hosiery manufacturing plant is operating since 2001. Kvůli otřesům musela být uzavřena i jaderná elektrárna v Mecamoru. A dokonce i po tomto zachování sídli soubor starých staveb a některé památky. In order to prevent kidney failure or death, the treatment requires prompt hospitalization, and, according to the doctor, the victims were not receiving adequate medication and dialysis and, as a result, most died before the arrival of the first foreign dialysis machines. "Bagratuni Kingdom", pp. En 1924, le nom Alexandropol est remplacé par Leninakan, après la mort du leader soviétique, Lénine[2]. L'Arménie entière est située dans une zone à forte activité sismique[19]. Depuis septembre 2008, la place a changé de visage avec ses nouvelles fontaines et monuments, notamment une œuvre du sculpteur Artouch Papoyan qui trône à 5,50 m de haut et qui représente plusieurs figures emblématiques du pays tel que Vardan Mamikonian. Spojení by mělo být umístěno bez ohledu na úplné nebo částečné použití materiálů. A od té doby město formovalo své tradice a bohatou historii. The annual precipitation averages 486 millimetres or 19.13 inches. Nine crew and 69 military personnel were on board the plane that struck a helicopter in foggy conditions at the small airport that was overrun with rescue flights. [11][13], The source of the event was a fault rupture 40 kilometers (25 mi) south of the Caucasus Mountains, a mountain range that has been produced by the convergence of the Arabian and the Eurasian tectonic plates. Elle est située à moins de dix kilomètres de la Turquie. Le stade du club, le Gyumri city stadium, construit en 1924, a une capacité de 3 000 spectateurs[38]. [16], The earthquake had a disastrous impact on the city, as many buildings are still not recovered. [26], The epicenters of the recorded aftershocks formed a relatively narrow 50 km (31 mi) band. While that shock may have been related to the Pambak-Sevan fault, the October 22, 1926 Leninakan earthquake to the west of the 1988 event also had a maximum intensity of MSK VIII. However, the Ottomans withdrew from the city on 24 December 1918, as a result of the Armistice of Mudros. In support of the relief effort, recording artists united to produce several music-related contributions for the victims of the quake. En 1837, la ville est rebaptisée Alexandropol sous l'Empire russe puis, en 1924, Léninakan pendant la période soviétique. L'autre curiosité architecturale de la ville est Sev Ghul (la sentinelle noire), une forteresse russe construite en 1834 à la sortie ouest de l'Alexandropol d'alors. Armenian Earthquake Memorial at the Red Cross Bldg in Washington, D.C. The shock occurred in the northern region of Armenia (then part of the Soviet Union) which is vulnerable to large and destructive earthquakes and is part of a larger active seismic belt that stretches from the Alps to the Himalayas. [19], On 12 January 2015, Valery Permyakov, a serviceman from the Russian 102nd Military Base, murdered seven members of an Armenian family in Gyumri. Le centre de la place, à l'instar de la place de la République à Erevan, sera orné d'une « tapisserie » de 3 600 m2 composé de quatre sortes de pierres différentes. Le 7 décembre 1988, la ville est détruite à 60 % par un séisme de 6,9 sur l'échelle de Richter. Zničilo toto zemětřesení v Arménii Leninakan,Kirovakan, Stepanavan a Spitak. [14] During the earthquake, the northeast-facing side of the Spitak section rode up and over the southwest-facing side. Imastaser Anania Shirakatsi University, opened in 1992. Michail Gorbačov, který byl v době zemětřesení na návštěvě ve Spojených státech amerických, přerušil svůj program a odletěl do postižených míst. [26], The instrumentation included ten smoked paper analog seismometers that were configured to allow for 48 hours of continuous single-component data recording. [42], The restoration process of the damaged buildings of Gyumri has been spearheaded by Earthwatch to preserve the city's unique architecture.[47]. En effet aujourd'hui, le rail est principalement utilisé pour le fret. From: Machine Translation Manukian, Miran, geboren te Leninakan (Rusland) op 29 januari 1968. D'abord connu sous le nom de Kumaïri, le hameau, devenu « Gyumri », ne se développe vraiment qu'au XIXe siècle. The negative effect the earthquake had on the economy of Armenia was apparent. Saint Arsenije Russian Orthodox Church of, built during the 1870s and opened in 1910. Již v šedesátých letech zde bylo více řemeslníků než v samotném hlavním městě Gruzie. The group, including a structural engineer who specialized in seismic-resistant designs, agreed that building inadequacies were the primary reason why the strong (but not huge) earthquake was so damaging, although the freezing temperatures also played a role in the unusually high death toll. La région de Gyumri a déjà subi plusieurs séismes importants par le passé. A second site that was close to the fault, also near the Pambak river and with similar soil deposits, did not experience liquefaction, though it would have experienced the same high peak ground accelerations as the failed highway embankment. The population of Gyumri has gradually grown since 1840 after gaining the status of town. Following an invitation by the Soviets for a critique of their plan, the American proposal was ultimately accepted as the way forward. V důsledku toho se Gyumri stal přeplněným. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 6 septembre 2020 à 19:54. The Dzitoghtsyan Museum of Social Life and National Architecture of Gyumri is an old mansion, housing collections related to both history and the everyday-life of Gyumri, as well as paintings and other works of art. As of 2014[update], according to some news websites, between 4,000 and 5,000 residents of Gyumri remain homeless, although there are no official figures provided by the local authorities of the city. Gyumri has made a major contribution to the sporting life of Armenia. It has been created collecting TMs from the European Union and United Nations, and aligning the best domain-specific multilingual websites. Pouze domy Stalinova času více či méněpřežil. Akopyan, Suzanna, geboren te Leninakan (Armenië) op 10 januari 1959. We need foreign assistance—and there is no doubt about that—but our friends do not know the local conditions and propose things that cannot or should not be built in an earthquake-prone region. Dès lors, le club, qui appartenait jusque-là à l'État, est financé par des fonds privés d'amateurs de football[38]. By the end of the 19th century, Alexandropol was home to 430 shopping stores as well as several workshops and cultural institutions. Mohou vychutnat procházky ulicemi Leninakanu. On 10 May 1920, the local Bolshevik Armenians aided by the Muslim population, attempted a coup d'état in Alexandropol against the Dashnak government of Armenia. Hraničí s Tureckem na západě, Gruzií na severu, Ázerbajdžánem na východě a Íránem na jihu. Záchranných prací se účastnili i záchranáři z tehdejšího Československa. Under the foreign rulers, the town had gradullay lost its significance during the following centuries, until the establishment of the Zakarid Principality of Armenia in 1201 under the Georgian protectorate. Na začátku století se město a okolní oblasti staly součástí Ruské říše. [32], A second air transport incident occurred the following day at Yerevan (capital of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic) when an Antonov An-12 from Yugoslavia crashed, killing all seven crew on board. Při kopírování materiálů, u online publikací je zapotřebí hypertextový odkaz otevřený pro vyhledávače. Leninakan hraničí s Tureckem a protíná s takovými kaňony jako Jajur a Cherkez. Last Update: 2012-04-06 In 1997, the KOHAR Symphony Orchestra and Choir was founded in Gyumri through the efforts of the Lebanese-Armenian philanthropist Harout Khatchadourian. Leninakan se nachází v blízkosti hlavního města Arménie- Jerevan. Fanoušci, kteří se těší z pohledu, by si měli vybratzpůsoby dopravy. As of 2017, Gyumri is home to the following higher educational centers: In 2014, the Gyumri Technology Center was opened in the city, in an attempt to turn Gyumri into a regional and international center of information and high technologies. Gyumri ou Gumri (en arménien Գյումրի) est la capitale et la principale ville du marz de Shirak, dans le nord-ouest de l'Arménie.Avec 146 969 habitants en 2008 [1], elle est la deuxième ville de l'Arménie après la capitale Erevan.. D'abord connu sous le nom de Kumaïri, le hameau, devenu « Gyumri », ne se développe vraiment qu'au XIX e siècle. Futsal -representing the Shirak State University- will also participate in the domestic league competition. In 1400, Timur invaded Armenia and Georgia, and captured more than 60,000 of the survived local people as slaves. The name o the ceety haes been chynged mony times in history. The total number of volunteer rescue personnel in Leninakan totalled 2,000, with teams from Austria, Canada, Switzerland, the United States and Yugoslavia. Deputy chairman of a city building and architecture council said that updated building codes like those in the United States were being drafted (along with a strict requirement that the new protocols be respected) and that the new buildings would be no taller than four stories and would be located away from areas with the highest seismic risk. [citation needed]. En octobre 2012, 1 458 familles étaient encore sur liste d'attente pour un nouveau logement, et devraient à leur tour en grande partie relogées en 2013[24]. En 1829, environ trois mille familles des villes arméniennes occidentales de Kars[7], Erzurum, Dogubeyazit et d'autres endroits migrent et s'installent à Gyumri, qui a alors un habitat très dense[5]. Futsal is also very popular in Gyumri. However, in the beginning of 2017, as part of new efforts to develop Gyumri and its tourism industry, the government focused on revitalizing the airport. Leonid Bibin, deputy chairman of the state building committee, stated that many newer homes collapsed as well and that he was beginning an investigation into the matter and that criminal charges would be brought. A 10 km de la ville se trouve le monastère de Marmashen. Many Olympic and world champion wrestlers, weightlifters and boxers are from Gyumri. Gyumri is known for its 19th-century architecture and urban constructions. Contrairement à celles de la capitale Erevan, elles ne sont pas aménagées en « autoroutes » 2x2 voies. Many works have been published to narrate about the legacy and heritage of the humor in Gyumri.[50]. Gyumri has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), characterized by freezing and snowy winters where the minimum temperature in extreme spells can plummet to −41 °C or −41.8 °F. Until the sovietization of Armenia in 1920, Alexandropol had 31 manufacturing centres including beer, soap, textile, etc. Alexandropol was finally formed as a town in 1840 to become the centre of the newly established Alexandropol Uyezd, experiencing rapid growth during its first decade. O něco později, v okolí, byla postavena ruská tvrz, vojenské opevnění a vesnické osady pro vojáky. Gyumri stojí za návštěvu a poznává bohatou historii. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'autre maison-musée est celle d'un autre poète, contemporain de Chiraz, Avetik Issahakian. The artistic director is Nikolay Tsaturyan. [39], In 1986, the Gyumri State Orchestra of Folk Instruments was founded, followed by the Gyumri State Symphonic Orchestra founded in 1993. José Alain Fralon, « 7 décembre 1991 : Trois ans après le séisme en Arménie La grande misère des sinistrés de Leninakan », Le Monde,‎ 12 octobre 1991 (lire en ligne). Zbývající budovy byly krabice se zničenými střechami, mezistěnami a schodištěmi. Passengers need to pay the money directly to the driver when getting out of the vehicle, with no established ticketing system. Public transit is mainly served by public vans, locally-known as marshrutka. 2020 v 17:02. It is locally known as the church of Kazachi Post. La ville est reliée à Tiflis dès 1899 et le prolongement vers le sud et l'Iran est réalisé en 1906. The flight also carried Robert Seiple (president of World Vision) and a UCLA doctor who had worked in the aftermath of the 1985 Mexico City earthquake. Examples translated by humans: MyMemory, World's Largest Translation Memory. Rock, folk rock and ethnic rock are widely popular through the local famous rock band Bambir, active since 1978. գյումրեցիների գնահատականը մեկդարյա «Անուշ»-ի առաջնախաղին, Ապրիլի մեկի խորհուրդն ու գյումրվա հումորի առանձնահատկությունները, «Սարի պես բանցր Գյումրին» եւ նրա հումորի լեգենդները, Armenia among the top 10 safest countries, "1837թ. Doba jízdy bude jen pár hodin. [49] The jokes and anecdotes of famous local humorists like Jgher Khachik and Poloz Mukuch are widely known by the local citizens. The largest industrial plant in Gyumri is the Gyumri-Beer Brewery opened in 1972. It was completely destroyed during the Soviet days. Leninakan je jen jeden z nich. Many case histories pertaining to liquefaction in sandy soil exist, but few exist with respect to gravel and gravelly sands. [29], Avant-garde musician Pierre Schaeffer led a 498-member French rescue team to look for survivors in Leninakan, and worked there until all foreign personnel were asked to leave after the plan to bulldoze what was left of the ruins was formulated. The M-7 Motorway passes across the Shirak Province from east to west, connecting the city of Gyumri with the rest of Armenia. [14] Soon after in 1502, Kumayri became part of the newly formed Erivan Beglarbegi, a new administrative territory of Iran formed by the Safavids. "[40], The Soviets and an American group of architects each devised separate outlines for rebuilding the town of Spitak. Arménie se pak aktivně podílela na humanitární činnostipomoci z celého světa. Budovy byly obnoveny, ale město Leninakan nebude dlouho zapomínat na zemětřesení v Arménii. The city suffered an earthquake in 1926, when many of its significant buildings were destroyed including the Greek church of Saint George. [9] With the hospitals destroyed, and their limited knowledge of the care requirements, the Soviets were not well-equipped to deal with the cases of crush syndrome. The factory produces a variety of lager beer under the brands Gyumri, Ararat and Aleksandrapol. As of 2017[update], the city is home to 47 public education schools, 23 pre-school kindergartens, as well as 7 special schools for music. The engineers who scrutinized the damaged buildings and the rescue workers who had dismantled the buildings while extricating survivors ascribe both design shortcomings and improper construction methods for the failure of the buildings. However, many historic churches in Gyumri were either ruined or destroyed, including: As of 2017[update], Gyumri is home to the following church buildings:[33]. The tapes were then played back and the P-wave and S-wave arrival times were used to automatically determine aftershock locations. Přesněji, je to skoro sto třicet kilometrů od něj. They supposedly sustained themselves on the food supplies—fruit salad, pickles, and smoked ham—that were available in the basement for 35 days before their rescue in January, but this turned out to be a hoax. A to je téměř o třicet let dříve než v celé východní Arménii. In 1837, Kumayri was renamed Alexandropol after Czar Nicholas I's wife, Princess Alexandra Fyodorovna. Gyumri is served by the international Shirak Airport, about 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) to the southeast of the city centre. Going westward the fault split into two branches, a north-dipping reverse fault (north branch) and a right slip fault (south branch), but neither produced surface rupture. Les communautés urbaines figurent en gras. Na území města se půda skládá z úrodné černé země. Starobylé město je jako kamenná oáza, ve kterém jepřekvapivě úspěšně spojily rané a moderní budovy. In 1837 Russian Tsar Nicholas I arrived in Gyumri and changed the name into Alexandropol. [19], The Soviet news media and government officials soon began to discuss the apparent substandard construction styles that had caused so many of Armenia's buildings to collapse. Quality: Ohanian, Samuel, né à Leninakan (Arménie) le 6 août 1951. Baxter International, an American health care company with headquarters in Deerfield, Illinois, designed and built a flying medical lab set up with 20 dialysis machines to be used with victims suffering from crush syndrome (trauma associated with building collapses), but were unable to get started for four days until the visas were available. Numerous sand boils were seen in the region northwest of Spitak including within 15 m (49 ft) of the failed embankment. A huge decline of the population was due to the disastrous earthquake of 1988. À partir des années 1970, il prend le nom d'« Olympia Leninkan » qu'il gardera jusqu'en 1991 et la chute du communisme. Soon after, KOHAR became one of the most celebrated choirs in Armenia as well as throughout the Armenian diaspora. However, at the beginning of the 5th century BC, Kumayri became part of the Satrapy of Armenia under the rule of the Orontids. Other industrial firms of the city include the "Aleqpol" factory for dairy products, the "Anusharan" confectionery plant, and the "Gold Plast" plant for building materials. Usage Frequency: 2 V Arménii došlo k silnému zemětřesení. The range is situated along an active seismic belt that stretches from the Alps in southern Europe to the Himalayas in Asia. De Gyumri à Akyaka, il suffirait en théorie d'une petite demi-heure de voiture. Armenia is a mountainous country characterized by a great variety of scenery and geologic instability. Hypertextový odkaz (pro online publikace) - by měl být umístěn v podtitulku nebo v prvním odstavci materiálu. Mnoho leteckých společností nabízí pravidelné lety do Gyumri, takže by neměly být žádné problémy s načasováním. Quality: Grâce à une aide communautaire d'urgence de 10 millions d'écus, du personnel, des équipements et des soins médicaux ont pu être financés en faveur des blessés de Spitak et de Leninakan. (պատմություն)", "Gyumri Technology Center:Vision/Mission", "Gyumri Tumo Center to Open in Spring 2015", President Serzh Sargsyan working visit to Gyumri, "Hauptausschuss für Städtepartnerschaft mit Gjumri in Armenien", "Armenian Genocide Memorial to be unveiled in Israel", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gyumri&oldid=980751913, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Armenian: Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ, Spitaki yerkrasharj), occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating). The earthquake death toll was by far the highest worldwide in the 1980s[20] and third-highest worldwide in the period 1971–2003[21][22] (33 years). Another printing house, Ayg (founded 1892), published historical books and the first periodical of Gyumri, Akhuryan. [36] Japan sent a monetary gift of $9 million while Italy had plans to build a prefabricated village for the victims, and West Germany offered to send more than a dozen heavy cranes. The National Federation of Black Belts of Aikido (NFBBA) is based in Gyumri since its establishment in 2012. Last Update: 2011-10-23 Po otřesech organizace zdravotnictví kompletně selhala, což do jisté míry přispělo k celkovému padesátitisícovému počtu obětí. Chatshatrian, Gegam, geboren te Leninakan (Armenië) op 9 juni 1979. En 2006, l'Arménie, prenant conscience de la nécessité d'un deuxième aéroport international aux normes occidentales, cède la gestion de celui de Gyumri à la société argentine Corporation America dirigée par le milliardaire d'origine arménienne Eduardo Eurnekian, déjà gérante de l'aéroport Zvartnots d'Erevan. During the pre-Soviet era, Alexandropol was considered the third-largest trade and cultural centre in Transcaucasia after Tiflis and Baku (Yerevan would not rise to prominence until being proclaimed as the capital of independent Armenia in 1918 and Armenian SSR in 1920). [23], In late December the last of the survivors that were able to be extricated were pulled from the fallen buildings, rescue operations ceased, and the cleanup began, beginning with the destruction of buildings that were too heavily damaged to be repaired. Leninakan est un centre industriel majeur pour la République socialiste soviétique arménienne et la deuxième ville de par la taille, après Erevan. However, the monastic complex was completely destroyed in 1852, during the construction of Russian military barracks. In 1829, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, there was a big influx of Armenian population, as around 3,000 families who had migrated from territories in the Ottoman Empire -in particular from the towns of Kars, Erzurum, and Doğubeyazıt- settled in and around Gyumri. Podnebí je zde mírně kontinentální. Le site reste sporadiquement habité pendant deux millénaires, jusqu'à ce qu'une forteresse russe majeure y soit construite en 1837[2]. Après l'indépendance du pays en 1991, le réseau tombe en désuétude. It was completely destroyed during the Soviet days.